An Excerpt from the current issue: Volume 31, #4
Sherman in North Georgia:
The Battle of Resaca
by Stephen Davis
As the war entered its third year, the North seemed on the verge of victory. By early 1864, Union armies had conquered and were occupying large areas of Confederate territory, including most of Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana and the vital Mississippi River valley. Moreover, Northern forces, with their superior strength, held the initiative on all fronts. Confederate armies were now too weak to launch the giant raids led by Braxton Bragg into Kentucky in 1862 and by Robert E. Lee into Pennsylvania in 1863. By these indices, the North was winning the war, and would triumph at its end.
New Battlefield Park to Open
When I visited Resaca, Ga., last September to lay out a Driving Tour and met Ken Padgett, President of the Friends of Resaca Battlefield, he was not convinced he had much of a battlefield to show me. Ken seemed resigned to Resaca’s uncertain fate as he unlocked the gate and motioned me through. It sure looked like a park, with a paved road, historical markers, and an exhibit pavilion. But at that time, the uncertainty of funding hung like a pall over Camp Creek Valley, where Sherman and Johnston struggled during the opening phases of the Atlanta Campaign in 1864.
An Excerpt from the current issue: Volume 31, #3
From Sailor’s Creek to Cumberland Church
April 6-7, 1865
by Chris Calkins
Seventy-Two Hours Before Appomattox
The smell of fresh dirt permeated the air as arriving Federal soldiers of Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan’s cavalry and the V Corps infantry, newly under the command of Maj. Gen. Charles Griffin, began digging a line of breastworks near Jetersville Station. Running perpendicular to the Richmond & Danville Railroad, the works lay across the path of the Confederate army’s route to North Carolina. Barely seven miles to the northeast at Amelia Court House was Gen. Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia which was now beginning its march along the railroad in the direction of Danville and the state line. At this point Lee still hoped to reach this location and combine his forces with those of the Army of Tennessee under Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. It was April 5, 1865, and the Southern commander still had hopes of continuing the struggle which had started nearly four years ago.
The following is the Editor’s Letter from The Sailor’s Creek issue, Volume 31, #3
72 Hours Before Appomattox
This is the final issue of the Civil War Sesquicentennial observance. It doesn’t seem all that long ago when we kicked off the 150th with Hank Elliott’s feature article on First Manassas. Pardon me if I brag a bit, because I’m very proud of how we’ve covered the Sesquicentennial in Blue & Gray. In particular, we maintained balance in our five Special Commemorative issues at the beginning of each year with two features on the Eastern Theater, Hank’s, and Frank O’Reilly’s 2-issue treatment on Chancellorsville; two on the Western Theater, Jim Jobe’s Forts Henry and Donelson and Eric Jacobson’s Battles at Spring Hill and Franklin; and last issue’s feature on the Civil War in Indian Territory by Mike Manning that showcased the Trans-Mississippi Theater. I like to think the vets in Blue and Gray have looked down approvingly upon our efforts.
This article by Chris Calkins originally appeared in Blue & Gray in 2001. It supports Calkins’ feature article in Vol. XXXI, #3, “From Sailor’s Creek to Cumberland Church, April 6-7, 1865: Seventy-Two Hours Before Appomattox.”
An Excerpt from the current issue: Volume 31, #2
They Fought Like Veterans
The Civil War in Indian Territory:
September 1863 – June 1865
Michael J. Manning
The brutality of the Civil War in Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma) tore apart the Five Civilized Tribes as they divided their loyalties between the United States and the Confederacy. The course of the war in the region began with the secession of the states of Arkansas and Texas, the alignment of the Indian Nations with the Southern Confederacy, and the evacuation of Fort Smith, Arkansas, and Indian Territory by the United States Army. Two Union expeditions into the Indian nations in 1862 and 1863 finally led to the reoccupation of Indian Territory north of the Arkansas River, and the Confederates’ evacuation of Fort Smith. The following narrative includes a description of the creation of Indian Territory and a recap of events in the early years of the Civil War, then chronicles the Civil War in Indian Territory from the Confederacy’s loss of Fort Smith on September 1, 1863, through the final surrender in 1865.
The following is the Editor’s Letter from The Civil War in Indian Territory, Volume 31, #2
Civil War in Indian Territory
The Trans-Mississippi Theater always gets short shrift. I’ve been hearing that for years now, and frankly it’s true. I’ve also discovered that the farther west you go, the more well-rounded Civil Warriors you find. That’s because many, if not most of them, are interested in Gettysburg and Petersburg, as well as Chattanooga, Atlanta and Vicksburg, but also Chustenahlah, Pea Ridge, Baxter Springs, 1st and 2nd Cabin Creek, Honey Springs, and Middle Boggy.
The Fort Smith Council of 1865
Submitted by Fort Smith National Historic Site
Lisa C. Frost, Superintendent
In September 1865, the U. S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs met with representatives of 13 Indian nations in Fort Smith, Arkansas. The purpose of this historic meeting, known as the Fort Smith Council, was to reestablish formal relations between the tribes and the United States Government in the aftermath of the Civil War. While many of the tribes had signed formal treaties with the Confederacy at the outbreak of the war, they had also internally split into factions along Union or Confederate lines. Indian delegates from the following nations were present at the council meeting: Caddo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Comanche, Creek, Osage, Quapaw, Seminole, Seneca, Shawnee, Wichita and Wyandotte.